Benarkah usman sungguh mencegah perubahan ayat? Tidak benar!
Sebenarnya Quran sudah tak lengkap lagi semenjak Usman belum menjadi khalifah dan melakukan standardisasi. Kita tengok kembali sejenak perihal tsb.
a) Pra Usman
Jangan pernah berkata bahwa “saya hafal seluruh isi Qur’an”, karena tak ada lagi yang tahu pasti isi sesungguhnya seperti apa. Juga tak ada yang memiliki naskahnya secara lengkap, melainkan hanyalah potongan-potongan saja. Sejak semula, Abdullah Ibn Umar telah memprihatinkan hal ini, seperti dikatakannya setelah perang Yamama, dikutip oleh sejarawan Islam as-Suyuti dalam bukunya “Al Itqan” demikian :
`Abdullah b. `Umar reportedly said, 'Let none of you say, "I have got the whole of the Qur'an." How does he know what all of it is? Much of the Qur'an has gone [d h b]. Let him say instead, "I have got what has survived."' (p. 117, Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 2, p. 25)
Selain itu, bukti bahwa Qur’an tak lengkap lagi stelah para penghafalnya tewas dalam Perang Yamama dilaporkan juga oleh Zuhri, demikian :
Zuhri reports, 'We have heard that many Qur'an passages were revealed but that those who had memorised them fell in the Yemama fighting. Those passages had not been written down, and following the deaths of those who knew them, were no longer known; nor had Abu Bakr, nor `Umar nor `Uthman as yet collected the texts of the Qur'an. (Burton: The published text ought here to be amended: for "fa lamma jama`a Abu Bakr", I propose to read: "wa lamma yajma` Abu Bakr", to follow: "lam yuktab".) Those lost passages were not to be found with anyone after the deaths of those who had memorised them. This, I understand, was one of the considerations which impelled them to pursue the Qur'an during the reign of Abu Bakr, committing it to sheets for fear that there should perish in further theatres of war men who bore much of the Qur'an which they would take to the grave with them on their fall, and which, with their passing, would not be found with any other. (pp. 126-127, Abu Bakr `Abdullah b. abi Da'ud, "K. al Masahif", ed. A. Jeffery, Cairo, 1936/1355, p. 23)
hihihihiii..... (banyak bacaan yang hilang dan belum sempat ditulis karena hanya dihafalkan)
Bahkan, di antara ulama Islam sendiri saling menentang, menuduh, dan membodohkan perihal keabsahan dan kesahihan hadits (sunnah) dan Qur’an. Seperti dikatakan oleh al-Hamdani berikut :
Some of us met to exchange hadith reports. One fellow said, 'Enough of this! Refer to the Book of God.' Imran b. Husain said, 'You're a fool! Do you find in the Book of God the prayers explained in detail? Or the Fast? The Qur'an refers to them in general terms only. It is the Sunna which supplies the detailed explanation.' (p. 21, al Hamdani, "I`tibar", pp. 24-5)
Saya tak habis pikir, pertentangan semacam ini sampai membawa manusia (justru yg seiman) dan saling mencaci-maki seperti itu. Jadi, tak ada lagi yang yakin bahwa Qur’an masih lengkap, utuh, dan sempurna. Itu masa pra Usman (sebelum standardisasi).
b) Perubahan Sesudah Usman (manipulasi dalam standardisasi)
Seperti telah saya paparkan lewat beberapa hadits di atas, Usman telah menghapus beberapa ayat termasuk ucapan “Bismillah” :
ibn `Abbas asked `Uthman what possessed him to place surat al Anfal, one of the mathani, with Bara'a, one of the mi'in, join them with no bismillah between them and place them among the seven lengthy suras. `Uthman replied that often the Prophet received quite long revelations. He would call for one of the scribes and say, 'Put these verses in the sura in which so-and-so occurs.' Anfal was among the first of the Medina revelations and Bara'a among the last. Since its contents resembled those of Anfal, `Uthman took it to belong with it, for the Prophet had died without explaining that it was part of it. (p. 164, Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 1, p. 60)
Malik had a shorter explanation for the absence of this bismillah. The beginning of Bara'a fell out and its bismillah fell out with it. (p. 164-165, Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 1, p. 65)
Bahkan, banyak ayat-ayat yang hilang. Salah satunya ayat tentang hukuman rajam bagi para pezinah (ada banyak bukti tertulis mengenai hal ini ) :
1)... the majority of the madahib are unanimously of the view that in certain circumstances, the penalty for adultery is death by stoning. Now, we know that this penalty is not only nowhere mentioned in our texts of the Qur'an, it is totally incompatible with the penalty that is mentioned: al zaniyatu wa al zani fajlidu kulla wahidin minhuma mi'ata jaldatin (The adulteress and the adulterer, flog each one of them one hundred strokes) (Q 24.2). (John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977, p. 72)
2) Ada lagi :
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 82, Number 816:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: 'Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, "We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book," and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession." Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." 'Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him." (See also: Vol. 8, No. 817 and Vol. 9, No. 424)
3) [Umar said:] Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the holy book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the verse of Rajam (the stoning of married persons, male and female, who commit adultery) and we did recite this verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say "By Allah's Book", we do not find the Verse of Rajam in Allah's Book, and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed.(Sahih Bukhari vol. 8, p. 539)
Kemudian, ada juga surat tentang Ibn Adam, seorang yang dikisahkan memiliki 2 wadi. al-Suyuti mengkonfirmasikan perihal yang sama, bahwa surat ini telah hilang karena ditarik kembali :
Abu Musa al An`sari reports, 'There was revealed a sura the like of Baqara, but it was later withdrawn.' He recalled of it, 'God will assist this polity with peoples who have no share in the Hereafter. Did ibn Adam posses two wadis of property, he would crave a third. Nothing will fill the maw of ibn Adam but dust, but God will relent to him who repents.' (John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977, p. 83, Jalal al Din `Abdul Rahman b. abi Bakr al Suyuti, "al Itqan fi `ulum al Qur'an", Halabi, Cairo, 1935/1354, pt 2, p. 25)
Jadi, ini sebenarnya sebuah surat (kumpulan ayat-ayat), dan bukan saja sekedar sebuah ayat. Tapi, Burton dan Burhan al-Baji kemudian berpendapat bahwa ayat-ayat tsb sebenarnya ada di surat Yusuf:Buraid claims to have heard the Prophet recite ibn Adam at prayer. The aya was in surat Yusuf.(John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977, p. 83, Burhan al Din al Baji, "Jawab", MS Dar al Kutub, Taimur "majami`", no. 207, f. 1
Jadi, surat ini bahkan dibaca oleh Muhammad dalam sembahyang, tapi tidak ada lagi dalam al-Quran!
Ini lagi-lagi ditentang oleh Abu al-Fadl Shihab dari Kairo, yang melaporkan bahwa menurut Abu Musa ayat-ayat ibn Adam sebenarnya masuk ke surat Al Ahzab: Abu Musa said, 'We used to recite surat al Ahzab, likening it for length and severity with Bara'a. But I have been caused to forget it, except that I recall the ibn Adam verse. (Abu al Fadl Sihab al Din Mahmud b. `Abdullah al Alusi, "Ruh al Ma`ani", 6 vols., idarat al taba`a al muniraya, Cairo, n.d., vol. 1, p. 315)
Membingungkan memang… menimbulkan pertengkaran di kalangan pemikir-pemikir Islam sendiri.
Selain itu, menurut pengakuan Aishah, salah satu janda Muhammad, surat 2 Al Baqarah 238 bahkan sudah tak lengkap lagi (dari Malik b. Anas, "al Muwatta'", K. al Hudud):
“Al Muwatta”, Book 8, Number 8.8.26:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from al-Qaqa ibn Hakim that Abu Yunus, the mawla of A'isha, umm al-muminin said, "A'isha ordered me to write out a Qur'an for her. She said, 'When you reach this ayat, let me know, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to Allah."' When I reached it I told her, and she dictated to me, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the asr prayer and stand obedient to Allah.' A'isha said, 'I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"
“Al Muwatta”, Book 8, Number 8.8.27:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that Amr ibn Rafi said, "I was writing a Qur'an for Hafsa, umm al-muminin, and she said, 'When you reach this ayat, let me know, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to Allah."' When I reached it I told her and she dictated to me, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the asr prayer and stand obedient to Allah.'"
(perhatikan, bunyinya beda!! Kutipan Aishah ada 'sholat asr' -nya)
“Al-Muwatta” adalah catatan hadits yang ditulis oleh Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abu Amir al-Asbahi (93-179 Hijriah). Ia tinggal lama di Madinah, kota dimana Muhammad banyak menghabiskan waktu. Sebagai pendiri sekolah filsafat Maliki, ia terus merevisi tulisannya selama 40 tahun.
Kemudian, ada juga ayat yang menyampaikan tentang pesan kebahagiaan para sahabat yang tewas di Bir-Mauna, tetapi kemudian ayat ini dibatalkan (sebagai akibat doktrin “al-nasikh wal mansukh”?) :
Narrated Anas bin Malik: For thirty days Allah's Apostle invoked Allah to curse those who had killed the companions of Bir-Mauna; he invoked evil upon the tribes of Ral, Dhakwan, and Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and His Apostle. There was reveled about those who were killed at Bir-Mauna a Quranic Verse we used to recite, but it was cancelled later on. The Verse was: "Inform our people that we have met our Lord. He is pleased with us and He has made us pleased." (Sahih Bukhari 4.69):
Anas ibn Malik said: We used to read a verse of the Qur'an revealed in their connection, but later the verse was cancelled. It was: "convey to our people on our behalf the information that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and has made us pleased." (Sahih Bukhari vol. 5, p. 288)
Jadi, ayat itu berisikan pesan para sahabat yang meninggal akibat terbunuh dalam dakwah, bahwa mereka telah bertemu Tuhan dan senang berada di surga. Ayat ini telah dibatalkan dan tak ada lagi dalam Qur’an.
Sementara itu, umat Islam yang telah terpecah ke dalam sekte Syiah menyatakan bahwa ada 500 ayat telah dihilangkan dari mushaf sebenarnya, termasuk ayat-ayat yang mengkonfirmasikan tentang Ali sebagai penerus kepemimpinan Muhammad dari ‘ahlul bayt’. Menurut mereka, pemerintahan Islam saat ini adalah pemerintahan yang kafir (impious) dan tak dikehendaki Allah:
The extreme Sh`ia, the Rafidis, alleged that the impious rulers had expunged from the mushaf some 500 verses including those which most unambiguously marked out `Ali as the appointed successor to the Prophet.... The rebels against `Uthman, justifying their revolt, enumerated amongst their grievances their resentment at his 'having expunged the mushafs.' (Abu Bakr `Abdullah b. abi Da'ud, "K. al Masahif", ed. A. Jeffery, Cairo, 1936/1355, p. 36)
Jika klaim Shiah ini benar, maka ada banyak sekali ayat dari Qur’an yang telah hilang. Dan siapa yg lebih merasa punya otoritas untuk mengatakan bahwa Shiah itu salah?